|CHAPTER NO.||CHAPTER NAME||LINK|
||General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
||p -Block Elements
||d -and f -Block Elements
||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
|UNIT-16||Chemistry in Everyday Life
class 12 chemistry syllabus 2021-22 pdf For All Boards
Unit I: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three-dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n and p-type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult's law, colligative properties - the relative lowering of vapour pressure, the elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.
Unit III: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations, and half-life (only for zero and first-order reactions), the concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts; enzyme catalysis, colloidal state: the distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII:p-Block Elements
Group -15 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only); Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, the importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.
Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.
Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones
Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, the reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Amines
Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules
Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.
Classification and functions.
DNA and RNA.
Unit XV: Polymers
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life
Chemicals in medicines
analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food
preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.